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## Learning Opportunities

This puzzle can be solved using the following concepts. Practice using these concepts and improve your skills.

## Goal

In memory of Niklaus Wirth (1934-2024).

In this part of the puzzle you will develop a compiler which produces PL/0 instructions.

PL/0 language was introduced in the book, Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs, by Niklaus Wirth. He is also the creator of Pascal, so do not be surprised to find some Pascal flavors in PL/0.

Grammar
Here is the EBNF definition of the PL/0 grammar:
`program = block "."block = [ "const" ident "=" number { "," ident "=" number } ";" ]        [ "var" ident { "," ident } ";" ]        { "procedure" ident ";" block ";" } statementstatement = [ ident ":=" expr | "call" ident              | "?" ident | "!" expr              | "begin" statement { ";" statement } "end"              | "if" condition "then" statement              | "while" condition "do" statement ]condition = "odd" expr |            expr ( "=" | "#" | "<" | "<=" | ">" | ">=" ) exprexpr = [ "+" | "-" ] term { ( "+" | "-" ) term }term = factor { ( "*" | "/" ) factor }factor = ident | number | "(" expr ")"`

# means not equal.
! prints a value.
? gets a value from inputs.

PL/0 is not case-sensitive for keywords.

number is a non-negative integer.

ident is used to name a const, var or procedure. It is alphanumerical, case-sensitive and does not start with a digit. ident is visible in the block where it is defined and all the nested blocks. ident can be overloaded with a new definition in a nested block, without affecting ident in the nesting blocks.

Error messages
If an error occurs, you need to print an error message:
Line x: msg

â€¢ x is program line number of error
â€¢ msg is one of the following:
> s missing
> Invalid w
> Unknown var
â€¢ w is expr/statement
â€¢ s is ;/then/do
â€¢ elt is const/var/procedure

If the error is an unknown variable or an element already defined, the line containing such variable or element is considered to contain the error; otherwise, the line containing the last valid token is deemed to contain the error.

Each block of PL/0 defines a level. The main block (and the variables defined there) is level 0. A procedure block defined in the main block is level 1, and one defined in level 1 is level 2, and so on.

A single stack is used for pushing and popping values. Each time a block is called, part of the stack (called a frame) is allocated to it, including 3 spaces reserved for the PL/0 processor, and 1 space for each variable (no allocation for constants). Relative address (index) is used for each frame, starting from 0.

Instructions
8 instructions are available in PL/0. In the explanation below, l is the absolute difference in nesting levels between an ident definition and its usage, and a is a non-negative integer.

lit 0, a pushes constant a onto the stack.

opr 0, a executes operation a (0 to 14):
0 returns from a procedure call or ends the program.
math operations: 1 neg (negative), 2 +, 3 -, 4 *, 5 / (floor division)
comparison operations: 6 odd, 7 =, 8 #, 9 <, 10 >=, 11 >, 12 <=
IO operations: 13 pops the stack and prints the popped value, 14 gets an input value and pushes it onto the stack.
For 1 to 12, arguments are popped from the stack (1 argument for neg and odd, 2 for others), math/comparison is performed and the result is pushed onto the stack. For 6 to 12, the result is either 1 for True or 0 for False.

jmp 0, a jumps to instruction at position (i.e. line number) a.

jpc 0, a conditional jump. The stack is popped, and if the popped value is 0 then jump to instruction at position a.

cal l, a calls procedure at instruction position a l levels up.

int 0, a allocates space in the stack. a is the number of spaces, i.e. 3 plus 1 for each variable as explained above.

lod l, a copies the value at stack relative address a l levels up, and pushes it onto the stack.

sto l, a pops the stack and stores the popped value at stack relative address a l levels up.

Instruction generation rules
Instructions should be generated following the program order.

expr such as 2 + 1 and condition such as if a < 0 then are compiled by pushing the arguments onto the stack (first operand is pushed first) and then applying the operator.

In an if/then statement, we use a conditional jump (jpc) for control flow.

Every block starts with jmp to jump over all instructions of nested procedures (if any) to an int instruction used to allocate stack space.

Program lines (i.e. input) are counted starting from 1. Instruction lines (i.e. output) are counted starting from 0, ignoring nesting level.
Input
Line 1: An integer N the number of lines in the PL/0 program
Next N lines: Strings of PL/0 program (some lines may begin with spaces or tabs).
Output
The PL/0 instructions (one per line) of the given program, or an error message.
Constraints
0 <= N < 100
Each line of PL/0 program is maximum 100 characters length.

All math and comparison operations work from left to right (e.g. there won't be cases like 2 + 7 * 9).
Example
Input
```3
const k=5;
var i;
begin i := k; !i end.
```
Output
```jmp 0, 1
int 0, 4
lit 0, 5
sto 0, 3
lod 0, 3
opr 0, 13
opr 0, 0```

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