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Learning Opportunities

This puzzle can be solved using the following concepts. Practice using these concepts and improve your skills.



You must output a visual of the given binary tree of size N.
A binary tree is a tree where each node has at most two children, called left child and right child.
A value is stored in each node.
Nodes have an id between 0 and N - 1 and are given in order.
The id of the root is always 0.
Line 1 : An integer N for the number of nodes.
N next lines : Three space separated integers for the value stored in the node and the id of its left and right children. The id is -1 if there is no child.
Lines trimmed on the right representing the tree.
Prior to trimming, the whole output can be seen as a big grid.
The values are located in "cells" of width W where W is 1 + the maximum number of digits of a tree value. The values are right-justified within their cell.
A node in the left sub-tree of a node is always represented to its left, a node in the right sub-tree of a node is always represented to its right.
The width of the visual is N cells, which means a total width of N x W characters before the right trimming. In other words, every "column" of the big grid contains exactly one value.
The nodes are connected with |, + and - as seen in the example.
| and + are right-justified within their cell.
The total height of the visual is L + 3 x (L - 1) lines where L is the number of levels, also knows as the "height" of the tree (each level brings one line for the values and 3 lines for the connections - except for the last level) .
1 ≤ N ≤ 20
111 1 2
222 3 4
3 -1 -1
44 -1 -1
555 -1 5
66 -1 -1
       |               |
     222               3
   |       |
  44     555

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