- 70

## Learning Opportunities

This puzzle can be solved using the following concepts. Practice using these concepts and improve your skills.

## Statement

## Goal

**Sum of consecutive big Fibonacci numbers is divisible or not?**

Let

`a`,

`b`and

`d`non negative integers.

**Determine if**

`d`divides F_`a`+ F_{`a`+1} + F_{`a`+2} + … + F_`b`.The difficulty is that we ask that for

**some very big indices**.

`a`Remember that the well-known Fibonacci numbers is a sequence of numbers starting with 0 and 1, and after that each number is the sum of the two previous ones.

F_0 =

F_1 =

F_{n+2} = F_{n+1} + F_n

So the first Fibonacci numbers are:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233…

**Example:**

`a`= 10

`b`= 12

F_10 + F_11 + F_12 = 55 + 89 + 144 = 288 = 32 * 9 = 2^5 * 3^2

This sum is divisible by

`d`= 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32, but NOT by 64.

This sum is divisible by

`d`= 3 and 9, but NOT by 27.

This sum is NOT divisible by

`d`= 5.

This sum is divisible by

`d`= 6.

…

Example of input:

2

10 12 3

10 12 5

And the expected output:

F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 3

F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 5

(When

`a`=

`b`write in the same way the beginning "F_

`a`+ ... + F_

`b`"

even if there is only one term.)

**Hints:**

Implementations of Fibonacci numbers computation is an usual example about recursivity and algorithmic complexity. The obvious way to implement it with recursion is a classical example of complexity explosion. There is several way to fix that, and the most obvious is the simple iteration that compute the result in a linear number of steps (if we consider that operations on numbers are in constant time, which is not really the case). The key point to solve this challenge is to find a mathematical way to be better than that and to implement it.

To help you can read the "Matrix form" section in "Fibonacci number" article on Wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number#Matrix_form

Maybe this list of the first 300 Fibonacci numbers and their factorization can help you:

http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibtable.html#100

But if you need these big numbers, you are probably on a wrong way. ;-)

Enjoy!

(If you are interested by the mathematical aspect, there exist a lot of nice properties about this sequence:

https://oeis.org/A000045 )

(The illustration image is a part of one page of the Liber Abaci:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liber_abbaci_magliab_f124r.jpg )

Input

**Line 1:**An non negative integer

`nb`for the number of tests.

**Next**Three space separated non negative integers

`nb`lines:`a`,

`b`and

`d`for the first index, for the last index, and for the divisor.

Output

`nb`lines:"F_ora+ ... + F_bis divisible byd"

"F_a+ ... + F_bis NOT divisible byd"

Constraints

`nb`≤

`a`≤

`b`≤

`b`-

`a`≤

`d`≤

Example

Input

13 10 12 2 10 12 32 10 12 64 10 12 3 10 12 9 10 12 27 10 12 5 10 12 7 10 12 11 10 12 287 10 12 288 10 12 289 10 12 1000

Output

F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 2 F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 32 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 64 F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 3 F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 9 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 27 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 5 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 7 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 11 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 287 F_10 + ... + F_12 is divisible by 288 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 289 F_10 + ... + F_12 is NOT divisible by 1000

A higher resolution is required to access the IDE