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Learning Opportunities

This puzzle can be solved using the following concepts. Practice using these concepts and improve your skills.

Goal

`===== Summary and your task =====`
You will be given 3 measurements (in centimeters) of a drinking-glass, sitting on a bar:
• its height, glassHeight

And you will be given a volume of beer beerVol in cubic-centimeters (also known as milliliters) that's been poured into the drinking-glass.

How high up (beerHeight) in the drinking-glass does the beer go ?

`===== Geometry background: frustum =====`
The above-described drinking-glass (upside down) in geometry is called a frustum.

Wikipedia describes it thus:
"A cone with a region including its apex cut off by a plane is called a truncated cone; if the truncation plane is parallel to the cone's base, it is called a frustum."

The volume of conical frustum is:
V = (1/3) * π * h * (r² + r * R + R²)
...where r and R are the radiuses and h is the height.
But remember the radius of the top of the drinking-glass isn't the radius of the top of the beer.

To better understand frustum geometry, you can experiment with:
https://www.omnicalculator.com/math/truncated-cone-volume
https://rechneronline.de/pi/truncated-cone.php

`===== Oh, tricky =====`
Tips:
Your first instinct might be to try an Analytic solution, by simply plugging numbers into a formula.
But there are 4 elements, and you'd need to know 3 of them; but you only know 2 ☹️

These elements are:
• volume of the beer beerVol
• height of the beer (unknown)
• radius of the drinking-glass at the spot where the top of the beer is (unknown)

So Analytic solution might be a bit tricky.
Perhaps try an Iterative method instead.

`===== Notes, sources =====`
• Beer foam doesn't matter. Think of it as water instead if you prefer
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone#
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iterative_method
Input
Line 1: 4 floats separated by a space: bottomRadius topRadius glassHeight beerVol
Output
Line 1: A float, beerHeight rounded and displayed to the nearest tenth
Height is measured perpendicular to the bar
Constraints
0 < beerHeight < glassHeight < 50
`2.5 4 15 473`
`14.3`