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Learning Opportunities

This puzzle can be solved using the following concepts. Practice using these concepts and improve your skills.


This is a port of the board game Breakthrough

  The Goal

The goal of the game is to reach first the opponent's home row.


The game is a two player game played on a 8x8 board, each player has 16 pieces.
At the starting position, the two bottom rows (for White) and the two top rows (for Black) of the board are filled with pieces. White makes the first move.

Movement works as follow:
  • A piece may move one space straight or diagonally forward if the target square is empty.
  • A piece may move into a square containing an opponent's piece if and only if that square is one step diagonally forward. The opponent's piece is removed and the player's piece replaces it.
  • Note that capturing is not compulsory, nor is it "chained" as in checkers.
Because pawns can only move forward, draws are impossible in Breakthrough games. A game may last theoretically up to 209 moves but, in practice, a game is generally decided before 100 moves are played.
Victory conditions
  • You reach first the opponent's home row.
  • You capture all opponent pieces.
Defeat Conditions
  • Your program does not provide a valid command in time.
  • You fail to protect your home row.
  • You lose all your pieces.

  Game Input

Input for one game turn

First line: The last move of your opponent or "None" if you start the game

Next line: Number of legal moves as an integer

Next lines: The legal moves as strings


A single line: Your move and an additional short message separated by a whitespace

Move encoding

A move is defined by its starting square and ending square. Squares are described using chess notation.
Example move: c2c3

The response time for the first turn is ≤ 1000 milliseconds.
The response time for the following turns is ≤ 100 milliseconds.

A higher resolution is required to access the IDE