Rust for Python Developers - Operators


This article was originally published on Medium

Follow me:

Method and Associated Functions

Methods are defined within the context of a struct and their first parameter is always self, which represents the instance of the struct the method is being called on. - The Rust Programming Language

Associated functions don’t take self as a parameter and they are not methods because they don’t have an instance of the struct to work with.

A good example is String::from function.

We use the :: syntax with the struct name to call this associated function whereas we use . when we call a method.

A common associated function is a new function that returns a value of the type the associated function is associated with.

Final code

Line 7–11: We create a mutable variable ans with the type of i32 . Using for loop, we iterate &self.nums using ans ^=n.

We adjust the above code to the LeetCode environment.

impl Solution {
    pub fn single_number(nums: Vec<i32>) -> i32 {
        let mut ans: i32 = 0;
        for n in nums {
            ans ^= n;
Create your playground on
This playground was created on, our hands-on, knowledge-sharing platform for developers.
Go to